William H. Peacock, LCDR USN, Ret.
Mathematics Instructor
Video - How to get TI-84 on your PC
TI-83/84 Handbook - pdf
Homework Assignments by Chapter
Chapter 2 PowerPoint
Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 2 Video - Data
Chapter 2 Video - Example: Identifying the W's
Chapter 3 Part 1 PowerPoint
Chapter 3 Part 1 Notes
Chapter 3 Part 1 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 3 Part 2 PowerPoint
Chapter 3 Part 2 Notes
Chapter 3 Part 2 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 2 - 3 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 3 Video - Displaying and Describing Categorical Data
Ch 3 Video - Example: Examining Contingency Tables
Chapter 4 Part 1 Powerpoint
Chapter 4 Part 1 Notes
Chapter 4 Part 1 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 4 Part 2 Powerpoint
Chapter 4 Part 2 Notes
Chapter 4 Part 2 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 4 Part 3 Powerpoint
Chapter 4 Part 3 Notes
Chapter 4 Part 3 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 4 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 4 Video - Displaying and Summarizing Quantitative Data
Ch 4 Video - Example: Shape, Center, and Spread
Ch 4 Video - Example: Summarizing a Distribution
Chapter 5 Powerpoint
Chapter 5 Notes
Chapter 5 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 5 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 5 Video - Understanding and Comparing Distributions
Ch 5 Video - Example: Comparing Groups
Chapter 6 Part 1 Powerpoint
Chapter 6 Part 1 Notes
Chapter 6 Part 1 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 6 Part 2 Powerpoint
Chapter 6 Part 2 Notes
Chapter 6 Part 2 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 6 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 6 Video - Standard Deviation as a Ruler and the Normal Distribution
Ch 6 Video - Example: Working with Standardized Variables
Ch 6 Video - Example: Working with the 68-95-99.7 Rule
Ch 6 Video - Example: Working with Normal Models I
Ch 6 Video - Example:Working with Normal Models II
Ch 6 Video - Example: More Working with Normal Models
Chapter 7 Powerpoint
Chapter 7 Notes
Chapter 7 Class Problems Worksheet
Ch 7 Video - Scatterplots, Association, and Correlation
Ch 7 Video - Example: Looking at Association
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Notes
Chapter 8 Class Problems Worksheet
Ch 8 Video - Linear Regression
Ch 8 Video - Example: Calculating a Regression Equation
Ch 8 Video - Example: Regression
Ch 9 Video - Regression Wisdom
Ch 9 Video - Example: Using Several of these Methods Together
Chapter 10 Powerpoint
Chapter 10 Notes
Chapter 10 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 7 - 10 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 10 Video - Re-expressing Data
Ch 10 Video - Example: Re-expressing to Straighten a Scatterplot
Chapter 11 Powerpoint
Chapter 11 Notes
Chapter 11 Class Problems Worksheet
Ch 11 Video - Understanding Randomness
Ch 11 Video - Example: Simulation
Chapter 12 Powerpoint
Chapter 12 Notes
Chapter 12 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 11 - 12 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 12 Video - Sample Surveys
Ch 12 Video - Example: Sampling
Chapter 13 Powerpoint
Chapter 13 Notes
Chapter 13 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 13 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 13 Video - Experiments and Observational Studies
Ch 13 Video - Example: Designing an Experiment
Chapter 14 Powerpoint
Chapter 14 Notes
Chapter 14 Class Problems Worksheet
Ch 14 Video - From Randomness to Probability
Ch 14 Video - Example: Probability
Chapter 15 Powerpoint
Chapter 15 Notes
Ch 15 Video - Probability Rules!
Ch 15 Video - Example: Using the General Addition Rule
Ch 15 Video - Example: Are the Events Disjoint? Independent?
Ch 15 Video - Example: Reversing the Condition
Chapter 16 Powerpoint
Chapter 16 Notes
Ch 16 Video - Random Variables
Ch 16 Video - Example: Expected Values and Standard Deviations for Discrete Random Variables
Ch 16 Video - Example: Hitting the Road: Means and Variances
Ch 16 Video - Example: Packaging Stereos
Chapter 17 Powerpoint
Chapter 17 Notes
Chapter 14 - 17 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 17 Video - Probability Models
Ch 17 Video - Example: Working with a Geometric Model
Ch 17 Video - Example: Working with a Binomial Model
Chapter 18 Powerpoint
Chapter 18 Notes
Chapter 18 Class Problems Worksheet
Ch 18 Video - Sampling Distribution Models
Ch 18 Video - Example: Working with Sampling Distribution Models for Proportions
Ch 18 Video - Example: Working with the Sampling Distribution Model for the Mean
Chapter 19 Powerpoint
Chapter 19 Notes
Chapter 19 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 18 - 19 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 19 Video - Confidence Intervals for Proportions
Ch 19 Video - Example: A Confidence Interval for a Proportion
Chapter 20 Powerpoint
Chapter 20 Notes
Chapter 20 Class Problems Worksheet
Ch 20 Video - Testing Hypotheses About Proportions
Ch 20 Video - Example: Testing a Hypothesis
Ch 20 Video - Example: Tests and Intervals
Chapter 21 Powerpoint
Chapter 21 Notes
Chapter 21 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 20 - 21 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 21 Video - More About Tests and Intervals
Ch 21 Video - Example: Another One-Proportion z-test
Ch 21 Video - Example: Wear that Seatbelt!
Chapter 22 Powerpoint
Chapter 22 Notes
Chapter 22 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 18 - 22 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 22 Video - Comparing Two Proportions
Ch 22 Video - Example: A Two-Proportion z-Interval
Ch 22 Video - Example: A Two-Proportion z-Test
Chapter 23 Powerpoint
Chapter 23 Notes
Chapter 23 Class Problems Worksheet
Ch 23 Video - Inferences About Means
Ch 23 Video - Example: A One-Sample t-Interval for the Mean
Ch 23 Video - Example: A One-Sample t-Test for the Mean
Chapter 24 Powerpoint
Chapter 24 Notes
Chapter 24 Class Problems Worksheet
Ch 24 Video - Comparing Means
Ch 24 Video - Example: A Two-Sample t-Interval
Ch 24 Video - Example: A Two-Sample t-Test for the Difference Between Two Means
Chapter 25 Powerpoint
Chapter 25 Notes
Chapter 25 Class Problems Worksheet
Chapter 23 - 25 Crossword Worksheet
Ch 25 Video - Paired Samples and Blocks
Ch 25 Video - Example: A Paired t-Test
Ch 25 Video - Example: A Paired t-Interval
Chapter 26 Powerpoint
Chapter 26 Notes
Chapter 26 Class Problems Worksheet
Ch 26 Video - Example: A Chi-Square Test for Goodness-of-Fit
Ch 26 Video - Example: A Chi-Square Test for Homogeneity
Ch 26 Video - Example: A Chi-Square Test for Independence
Chapter 27 Powerpoint
Chapter 23 - 27 Crossword Worksheet
Ch-27 Video - Inference for Regression
Ch 27 Video - Example: Regression Inference
Ch 27 Video - Example: A Regression Slope t-Test
AP Exam Review Ch 2-17 Powerpoint
AP Exam Review Ch 18-26 Powerpoint
AP Statistics




Course Description:

       The AP Statistics course is designed to introduce students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing, and drawing conclusions from data. Students will be exposed to several broad conceptual themes of statistics such as exploring data, planning a study, modeling and anticipating patterns, and statistical inference.

            The course follows the AP Statistics curriculum established by the College Board, while also including material that will guide students in conducting and communicating their own statistical analyses. Students will learn standard statistical terms and techniques through presentation of real world cases.

            Technology will be an integral part of the course. Students will be expected to use the TI-83/84 graphing calculator to perform their analyses, to present their findings, and to investigate topics visually. All students are expected to possess the determination and initiative to take on a college-level course, including the corresponding workload. All students taking AP Statistics are required by the district to take the AP Statistics Examination in May.



Behavioral Expectations

The teacher plays a role in learning but ultimately, you are responsible for the quality of your education. In order to maximize your learning experience, ask yourself the following questions:

 

  1. Do you attend classes on a regular basis?
  2. Are you on time to class?
  3. Are you prepared for class -- pencil/pen, notebook, calculator?
  4. Do you do your homework everyday?
  5. Do you pay attention in class, participate in discussions and ask relevant questions?
  6. Do you treat all other students with respect and allow for open educational debate?
  7. If you are absent, do you make an effort to find out what was covered and make up the work?
  8. Do you seek extra-help as soon as possible if you did not understand something in class?
  9. If you miss a test, do you take the initiative to arrange a make-up?
These are the behaviors that make for a good student and a good learning environment. You are expected to be such a student.


Atlantic Technical High School

 

AP Statistics (#1210320)

Syllabus

2015-2016

Teacher Name: William Peacock

Classroom Location:  2437

Phone Number: 754-321-5300 ext. 493-3136

Email Address: william.peacock@browardschools.com

Web Site: www.peacock-maths.org

Teacher Schedule:

 

Period 1: AP STAT

Period 2: PROB, STAT W/APPLS H

Period 3: Planning

Period 4: PROB, STAT W/APPLS H

 

Office Hours:

M-F: 1:45 pm – 2:15 pm

By appointment only.

Textbook/Supplementary Text(s):

Addison Wesley, Stats Modeling the World, Third Edition

 

High School Students are responsible for the care and return of all the required books and required materials/supplies on loan and will be issued an obligation for damaged or missing books and/or materials/supplies.

 

Note: Online textbook may be accessed through the BEEP Student Portal, Doorway #2:

http://beep.browardschools.com

User ID: 10 digit student number

Password: Birth Date (MM/DD/YYYY)

 

Supplies:

·       1” 3-ring binder

·       binder dividers

·       spiral notebook

·       Set of colored pencils

·       TI – 84 graphing calculator (if the student does not have a TI – 84, one will be issued to them)

·       4 AAA batteries

·       Barron’s or Amsco’s AP Exam Preparation Book (recommended to study for the AP exam, but not required)

 

 

 

Broward County Schools Attendance Policy:

   A student who has had at least five unexcused absences, or absences for which the reasons are unknown, within a calendar month, or 10 unexcused absences, or absences for which the reasons are unknown, within a 90-calendar-day period, may be exhibiting a pattern of non-attendance (F.S.1003.26 (1) (b)) and the School Board of Broward County, Policy 5.5.

   This course is fast-paced and demanding. One topic builds on another. Daily participation is a must. You are responsible for all material presented in class, present or absent, including announcements about course procedures. Exams, quizzes, and homework may include questions on material presented only in class, so performance on these indirectly reflects attendance. I do not reteach previous lessons. If you are absent, it is your responsibility to review the material covered, complete the assignments missed and if you require additional help see me or attend tutoring after school.

 

Tardies – IAW ATC student handbook.

 

To report a student absence, please call Ms. Gwen Boykin at 754-321-5300

BCS Grading System:

 

A      90 – 100%

B+ 87 – 89%

B      80 – 86%

C+ 77 – 79%

C      70 – 76%

D+ 67 – 69%

D      60 – 66%

F   0 – 59%

I    Incomplete

 

Additional Grading Information:

You must show all work, neatly and organized, or give an explanation to receive credit for all free response answers. All work in this course most be your own work IAW the Student Honor Code.

•  Tests: Tests are 60% of your total grade. Tests will normally cover more than one chapter. Books and/or notes are not allowed to be used at any time during a test. Violation of the student honor code will be handled IAW the ATC Student Handbook. Tests missed due to excused absences will be made up IAW the Student Code of Conduct.

•  Quizzes: Quizzes and/or class activities are 15% of your total grade. A quiz will be given on each chapter. Normally, quizzes will be given after reviewing the homework. Quizzes missed due to excused absences will be made up IAW the Student Code of Conduct.

•   Homework: Homework (or classwork) is 10% of your total grade. Homework will be checked when assigned during the first 5-10 minutes of class. All work must be shown to receive credit, answers only will receive no credit. All work must be neat and organized. Full credit for a homework assignment is 2 points (100%). Partially completed homework will receive half credit, 1 point (50%). No late homework will be accepted. Homework will normally be given on completion of a chapter.

•   Class Notes Notebook: Class Notes Notebook is 10% of your total grade. The Notebook will be graded on a scale of 0 to 100, based on completeness, neatness and organization. Late notebooks will be graded IAW the ATC student handbook.

•   Class Participation Grade: Class participation is 5% of your total grade. Class participation includes, but is not limited to; paying attention during class, note taking, participating in class discussions, asking/answering questions, working class problems (your turn, etc.) Full participation credit is 2 points (100%). Partial participation is half credit, 1 point (50%). No participation or disrupting class is a zero. Sleeping in class and use of unauthorized electronic devices in class will also result in a zero.

•   Makeup work: All makeup homework will be completed in accordance with the student handbook. However, previously assigned work is due the day of return. Makeup homework will be presented during the normal homework check upon your return to class. Makeup tests or quizzes will be completed in class on the day of return to class. Makeup tests, quizzes and homework not completed within the required time period will be assigned a grade of zero.

 

View Your Grades:

Grades can be viewed online by following the directions below:

1.    Go to https://browardfocus.com (access FOCUS using Chrome, Firefox or Safari)

2.    Student ID which is on your student schedule.

3.    Passcode: Student’s date of birth formatted as YYYYMMDD.

Four digits for the year, two digits for the month and two digits for the day.

 

 

Class Policies and Procedures

•  Math Notebooks:  2 notebooks total – one 3-ring binder notebook (class notes worksheets, handouts, and class activities) and one spiral notebook (homework).

    The class notes notebook (3-ring binder) will be maintained as follows;

    1. Used to keep all class note worksheets, class activities and other handouts.

    2. Will be divider and organized by chapter.

    3. When absent, students are responsible for obtaining missed notes.

    4. Class notes notebook will graded by chapters on the test. The notebook will be collected the  day of each test and graded.

    The homework notebook (spiral notebook) will be maintained as follows;

    1. Heading on the top of the first page of a homework assignment. Heading shall include assignment chapter, problems assigned, name, period and date.

    2. Show all work to receive credit for homework assignments. Work must be neat and organized.

    3. Homework will be checked at the beginning of class when assigned.                                      

•   Graphing Calculator (GDC): TI-84 required for class everyday.

    1. Solutions found from a graphic display calculator (GDC) must be supported by suitable work.

    2. Use in class, on quizzes and tests.

    3. Conditions of use during quizzes and tests.

                - The RAM memory must be reset or initialized (no notes allowed on the calculator).

                - Only approved flash Apps remain in the calculator (Finance, CtlgHelp).

        - Calculators maybe randomly checked during quizzes and tests. Students found

          with unauthorized Items on their calculators will be deemed cheating and receive a zero.

    •    Students are required to bring their notebooks and calculator to class each day. Failure to

         do so will affect your ability to complete this course satisfactorily.

Restroom Passes:

        Restroom passes are only to be used for their stated purpose and should normally take about 5 minutes. Only one person at a time will be allowed to go to the restroom. A restroom pass will be posted, just go and return the pass. You do not have to ask permission. The restroom pass cannot be used during any test or quiz, until it has been completed and turned in. Restroom passes are a privilege. If a student abuses their restroom privileges, then they lose them.

Electronic Devices:

        IAW the student code of conduct and ATC student handbook, forbidden devices include, but are not limited to laptops, tablets, iPods, mp3 players, headphones/earbuds, smart watches and cell phones. These devices are required to be turned off and out of sight upon entering the classroom. Consequences; 1st offense – warning, 2nd offense – confiscated and turned into office, 3rd offense – confiscated and referral. Any tablets, smart watches or cell phones out and in sight during a quiz or test will be considered cheating and will result in a zero and be confiscated.

Classroom Rules:

        #1- Be prepared for class.

        #2- Do not disrupt the class (talking, horseplay, joking around, etc.).

        #3- Remain in assigned seat.

        #4- Participate in all class activates (note taking, working problems, etc.).

        #5-Class starts and ends IAW the bell schedule.

 

Consequences of breaking the above rules are IAW the ATC student handbook.

 

Note: Please refer to the Atlantic Technical High School Student Handbook for a complete explanation of school policies regarding late schoolwork, the Honor Code, Dress Code, etc. 
District Policies can be found at the Broward County Public Schools Code Book for Student Conduct: http://bcps.browardschools.com/codeofconduct.asp.
 

 

Course Description:

   The purpose of the AP course in statistics is to introduce students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing and drawing conclusions from data. Students are exposed to four broad conceptual themes:

1.       Exploring Data: Describing patterns and departures from patterns

2.       Sampling and Experimentation: Planning and conducting a study

3.       Anticipating Patterns: Exploring random phenomena using probability and simulation

4.       Statistical Inference: Estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses

   Students who successfully complete the course and exam may receive credit,

advanced placement or both for a one-semester introductory college statistics course

   The course follows the AP Statistics curriculum established by the College Board, while also including material that will guide students in conducting and communicating their own statistical analyses. Students will learn standard statistical terms and techniques through presentation of real world cases.

   Technology will be an integral part of the course. Students will be expected to use the TI-83/84 graphing calculator to perform their analyses, to present their findings, and to investigate topics visually. All students are expected to possess the determination and initiative to take on a college-level course, including the corresponding workload. All students taking AP Statistics are required by the district to take the AP Statistics Examination in May.

 

Course Content:

   The topics for AP Statistics are divided into four major themes: exploratory analysis (20–30 percent of the exam), planning and conducting a study (10–15 percent of the exam), probability (20–30 percent of the exam), and statistical inference (30–40 percent of the exam).

   I. Exploratory analysis of data makes use of graphical and numerical techniques to study patterns and departures from patterns. In examining distributions of data, students should be able to detect important characteristics, such as shape, location, variability and unusual values. From careful observations of patterns in data, students can generate conjectures about relationships among variables. The notion of how one variable may be associated with another permeates almost all of statistics, from simple comparisons of proportions through linear regression. The difference between association and causation must accompany this conceptual development throughout.

   II. Data must be collected according to a well-developed plan if valid information is to be obtained. If data are to be collected to provide an answer to a question of interest, a careful plan must be developed. Both the type of analysis that is appropriate and the nature of conclusions that can be drawn from that analysis depend in a critical way on how the data was collected. Collecting data in a reasonable way, through either sampling or experimentation, is an essential step in the data analysis process.

   III. Probability is the tool used for anticipating what the distribution of data should look like under a given model. Random phenomena are not haphazard: they display an order that emerges only in the long run and is described by a distribution. The mathematical description of variation is central to statistics. The probability required for statistical inference is not primarily axiomatic or combinatorial but is oriented toward using probability distributions to describe data.

   IV. Statistical inference guides the selection of appropriate models. Models and data interact in statistical work: models are used to draw conclusions from data, while the data are allowed to criticize and even falsify the model through inferential and diagnostic methods. Inference from data can be thought of as the process of selecting a reasonable model, including a statement in probability language, of how confident one can be about the selection.

 

Topic Outline:

   Following is an outline of the major topics covered by the AP Statistics Exam. The ordering here is intended to define the scope of the course but not necessarily the sequence. The percentages in parentheses for each content area indicate the coverage for that content area in the exam.

I. Exploring Data: Describing patterns and departures from patterns (20%–30%)

Exploratory analysis of data makes use of graphical and numerical techniques to study patterns and departures from patterns. Emphasis should be placed on interpreting information from graphical and numerical displays and summaries.

A. Constructing and interpreting graphical displays of distributions of univariate data (dotplot, stemplot, histogram, cumulative frequency plot)

    1. Center and spread

2. Clusters and gaps

3. Outliers and other unusual features

4. Shape

B. Summarizing distributions of univariate data

     1. Measuring center: median, mean

2. Measuring spread: range, interquartile range, standard deviation

3. Measuring position: quartiles, percentiles, standardized scores (z-scores)

4. Using boxplots

5. The effect of changing units on summary measures

C. Comparing distributions of univariate data (dotplots, back-to-back stemplots, parallel boxplots)

1. Comparing center and spread: within group, between group variation

2. Comparing clusters and gaps

3. Comparing outliers and other unusual features

4. Comparing shapes

DExploring bivariate data

1. Analyzing patterns in scatterplots

2. Correlation and linearity

3. Least-squares regression line

4. Residual plots, outliers and influential points

5. Transformations to achieve linearity: logarithmic and power transformations

EExploring categorical data

1. Frequency tables and bar charts

2. Marginal and joint frequencies for two-way tables

3. Conditional relative frequencies and association 

4. Comparing distributions using bar charts

II. Sampling and Experimentation: Planning and conducting a study (10%–15%)

Data must be collected according to a well-developed plan if valid information on a conjecture is to be obtained. This plan includes clarifying the question and deciding upon a method of data collection and analysis.

A. Overview of methods of data collection

     1. Census

2. Sample survey

3. Experiment

4Observational study

B. Planning and conducting surveys

1. Characteristics of a well-designed and well-conducted survey

2. Populations, samples and random selection

3. Sources of bias in sampling and surveys

4. Sampling methods, including simple random sampling, stratified random sampling and cluster sampling

C. Planning and conducting experiments

1. Characteristics of a well-designed and well-conducted experiment

2. Treatments, control groups, experimental units, random assignments and replication

3. Sources of bias and confounding, including placebo effect and blinding

4. Completely randomized design

5. Randomized block design, including matched pairs design

                 D. Generalizability of results and types of conclusions that can be drawn from observational

                    studies, experiments and surveys

III. Anticipating Patterns: Exploring random phenomena using probability and simulation (20%–30%)

Probability is the tool used for anticipating what the distribution of data should look like under a given model.

A. Probability

1. Interpreting probability, including long-run relative frequency interpretation

2. “Law of Large Numbers” concept

3. Addition rule, multiplication rule, conditional probability and independence

4. Discrete random variables and their probability distributions, including binomial and geometric

5. Simulation of random behavior and probability distributions

6. Mean (expected value) and standard deviation of a random variable, and linear transformation of a random variable

B. Combining independent random variables

1. Notion of independence versus dependence

2. Mean and standard deviation for sums and differences of independent random variables

C. The normal distribution

1. Properties of the normal distribution

2. Using tables of the normal distribution

3. The normal distribution as a model for measurements

                D. Sampling distributions

1. Sampling distribution of a sample proportion

2. Sampling distribution of a sample mean

3. Central Limit Theorem

4. Sampling distribution of a difference between two independent sample proportions

5. Sampling distribution of a difference between two independent sample means

6. Simulation of sampling distributions

7. t-distribution

8Chi-square distribution

IV. Statistical Inference: Estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses (30%–40%)

Statistical inference guides the selection of appropriate models.

A. Estimation (point estimators and confidence intervals)

1. Estimating population parameters and margins of error

2. Properties of point estimators, including unbiasedness and variability

3. Logic of confidence intervals, meaning of confidence level and confidence intervals, and properties of confidence intervals

4. Large sample confidence interval for a proportion

5. Large sample confidence interval for a difference between two proportions

6. Confidence interval for a mean

7. Confidence interval for a difference between two means (unpaired and paired)

8. Confidence interval for the slope of a least-squares regression line

              B. Tests of significance

1. Logic of significance testing, null and alternative hypotheses; p-values; one- and two-sided tests; concepts of Type I and Type II errors; concept of power

2. Large sample test for a proportion

3. Large sample test for a difference between two proportions

4 . Test for a mean

5. Test for a difference between two means (unpaired and paired)

6. Chi-square test for goodness of fit, homogeneity of proportions, and independence (one- and two-way tables)

7. Test for the slope of a least-squares regression line

 

The Use of Technology:

   The AP Statistics course adheres to the philosophy and methods of modern data analysis. Although the distinction between graphing calculators and computers is becoming blurred as technology advances, at present the fundamental tool of data analysis is the computer. The computer does more than eliminate the drudgery of hand computation and graphing it is an essential tool for structured inquiry.

   Data analysis is a journey of discovery. It is an iterative process that involves a dialogue between the data and a mathematical model. As more is learned about the data, the model is refined and new questions are formed. The computer aids in this journey in some essential ways. First, it produces graphs that are specifically designed for data analysis. These graphical displays make it easier to observe patterns in data, to identify important subgroups of the data and to locate any unusual data points. Second, the computer allows the student to fit complex mathematical models to the data and to assess how well the model fits the data by examining the residuals. Finally, the computer is helpful in identifying an observation that has an undue influence on the analysis and in isolating its effects.

   In addition to its use in data analysis, the computer facilitates the simulation approach to probability that is emphasized in the AP Statistics course. Probabilities of random events, probability distributions of random variables and sampling distributions of statistics can be studied conceptually, using simulation. This frees the student and teacher from a narrow approach that depends on a few simple probabilistic models.

   Because the computer is central to what statisticians do, it is considered essential for teaching the AP Statistics course. However, it is not yet possible for students to have access to a computer during the AP Statistics Exam. Without a computer and under the conditions of a timed exam, students cannot be asked to perform the amount of computation that is needed for many statistical investigations. Consequently, standard computer output will be provided as necessary and students will be expected to interpret it.

   A graphing calculator is a useful computational aid, particularly in analyzing small data sets, but should not be considered equivalent to a computer in the teaching of statistics. If a graphing calculator is used in the course, its computational capabilities should include standard statistical univariate and bivariate summaries through linear regression. Its graphical capabilities should include common univariate and bivariate displays such as histograms, boxplots and scatterplots. Students find calculators where data are entered into a spreadsheet format particularly easy to use. Ideally, students should have access to both computers and calculators for work in and outside the classroom.

   Currently, the graphing calculator is the only computational aid that is available to students for use as a tool for data analysis on the AP Exam. Students who utilize graphing calculators on the exam should be aware of the following policy. It is not only inappropriate, but unethical, for students who are taking the AP Statistics Exam to have access to any information in their graphing calculators or elsewhere that is not directly related to upgrading the statistical functionality of older graphing calculators to make them comparable to statistical features found on newer models. During the exam, students are not permitted to have access to any information in their graphing calculators or elsewhere that is not directly related to upgrading the statistical functionality of older graphing calculators to make them comparable to statistical features found on newer model. Acceptable upgrades include improving the calculators computational functionalities and/or graphical functionalities for data that students key into the calculator while taking the exam. Unacceptable enhancements include, but are not limited to, keying or scanning text or response templates into the calculator. Students attempting to augment the capabilities of their graphing calculators in any way other than for the purpose of upgrading features, as described above, will be considered to be cheating on the exam.